NEHA October 2022 Journal of Environmental Health

28 Volume 85 • Number 3 A D VANC EME N T O F T H E SCIENCE based paint, asthma triggers, and/or injury risks were identified in most homes, and our findings provide additional insight about the types and locations of these hazards. Our results can inform the activities of future Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Grants as well as other programs intended to identify and address hazards and deficiencies in older and low-income housing. Wider dissemination of these findings can also facilitate regional comparisons of pre-1978 housing conditions. The occupant and housing characteristics presented here were largely representative of all Las Vegas LHCHHP enrollees and reflect target enrollment groups for HUD-funded Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Grants. A higher proportion of primary participants were African American, Hispanic, or Latino compared with the City of Las Vegas as a whole. Most included properties were located in the 89106 and 89107 ZIP Codes, reflecting where the most Las Vegas LHCHHP recruitment letters were mailed. Homes in the City of Las Vegas that were included were typically larger by square footage and number of rooms compared with homes previously enrolled in the neighboring City of Henderson during the 2013–2016 Henderson Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Program (Henderson LHCHHP). Comparison of Henderson LHCHHP and Las Vegas LHCHHP findings o—ers one example of how even seemingly similar neighboring communities have di—erent housing and occupant characteristics. By the conclusion of the Henderson LHCHHP in 2016, 79% of enrolled units had lead-based paint hazards (Sokolowsky, 2017), whereas 98% of all Las Vegas LHCHHP units had lead-based paint hazards through March 2020. While household sizes were similar, participants in the two programs di—ered in terms of income distribution, race, and ethnicity; Henderson LHCHHP participants predominantly were White, non-Hispanic or Latino, thus largely reflecting the demographics of the City of Henderson. Another contrast was that the Las Vegas LHCHHP had more owner-occupied units (83.7%) than did the Henderson LHCHHP (28.3%). Understanding the types and locations of lead-based paint, dust, and soil hazards in qualified housing informs community-level educational e—orts and supports the utility of current HUD guidelines for conducting combined lead inspection and risk assessments. The importance of lead dust sampling persists, as the majority of included Las Vegas LHCHHP homes had at least one lead dust hazard. Study findings from Las Vegas LHCHHP are consistent with a study by Jacobs et al. (2002) that found 16% of housing units in the U.S. had ≥1 lead dust windowsill or lead dust floor hazard and much fewer (5%) had lead soil hazards. Jacobs et al. (2002) further estimated that 25% of all U.S. dwellings have either deteriorated lead-based paint hazards, lead dust, or lead in the soil. These study findings also demonstrate the necessity of testing all painted surfaces in homes, as a variety of individual components were identified as lead-based paint hazards. The high prevalence of lead-based paint hazards on doors, windows, and other components for the Las Vegas LHCHHP housing was consistent with findings by Rufin (2015) for the Henderson LHCHHP. Testing all comLead Dust Hazards Identified During Lead Inspection and Risk Assessment Visits for the Las Vegas Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Program (N = 43) Lead Dust Hazard Location * Frequency Homes # (%) Windowsill (≥100 µg/ft2 of lead) 0 20 (46.5) 1–2 19 (44.2) ≥3 4 (9.3) Floor (≥10 µg/ft2 of lead) 0 37 (86.0) ≥1 6 (14.0) * According to 2019 lead dust standards from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Housing Components Identified to Have Lead-Based Paint Hazards in the Las Vegas Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Program (N = 43) Component Homes With Hazards # (%) Total Hazards # (Range) Door (doors, stops, jambs, casings, steps, security doors, door knockers, doorbells) 25 (58.1) 109 (0–23) Window (casings, sills, frames, aprons, shutters, security bars) 26 (60.5) 188 (0–37) Roof (fascia, flashing, soffit, soffit supports, beams, gutters) 20 (50.0) 180 (0–23) Walls, ceilings, and floors (interior and exterior walls, ceilings, foundation, floors, trim, baseboards, vents) 27 (62.8) 198 (0–55) Miscellaneous (shelves, shelf supports, cabinets, light fixtures, vents, electrical boxes, pipes, water spigots, support columns and attachments, fences, railings, house numbers) 40 (93.0) 184 (0–15) Note. Lead-based paint hazards were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. TABLE 2 TABLE 3