NEHA October 2022 Journal of Environmental Health

26 Volume 85 • Number 3 A D VANC EME N T O F T H E SCIENCE paint with a concentration of ≥1.0 mg of lead/ cm2 was identified by the XRF analyzer, the hazard was flagged, and a photograph was taken. The lead concentration, location, component, paint color, and paint condition were all noted in the XRF. The visual assessment of healthy homes hazards was contingent on identification of ≥1 lead-based paint hazard during the lead inspection and risk assessment. The Las Vegas LHCHHP visual assessment tool was based on the 29 hazard categories of the Healthy Homes Rating System (HHRS), though the HHRS scoring system was not utilized per HUD guidance. Instead, each hazard example within the 29 hazard categories was ranked as good, concern, take action, or not applicable for all rooms and accessible exterior areas of the home. Items in good condition were not considered to be hazards. Hazards that were ranked as a concern or take action were documented with a photo for the edification of the resident and/or homeowner, and the take action hazards were prioritized for future program remediation. All findings of the lead inspection and risk assessment and healthy homes visual assessment were compiled in informative reports provided to the resident and/or homeowner and the City of Las Vegas. All program files were maintained on a secure server. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria In order to be included in the subsequent analyses, Las Vegas LHCHHP participants had to have consented to participate in the research study. As informed consent could be provided only in-person by English-speaking participants, vacant units and Spanishspeaking primary participants (N = 19) were excluded from these data analyses. Thus, a total of 43 homes were included in our study. An additional four homes were excluded from the healthy homes visual assessment analysis due to fundamental changes in the visual assessment tool in the first quarter of the Las Vegas program. Data Analysis Descriptive statistics were obtained throughout the grant for the purpose of tracking project progress. Here, more complete descriptive assessments of participant demographics and income, housing characteristics, lead dust hazards, and types of components with leadbased paint hazards were obtained. Additional analysis considered the occurrence of each hazard category by location in the home (i.e., kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, other, and exterior). All analyses were performed using SPSS Statistics version 26. Results Recruitment and Enrollment The program distributed 32,580 educational and outreach materials in the Las Vegas community. During these outreach attempts, 586 interested participants completed the prequalification intake form. From those interested participants, 63 completed the application, provided the required documents, qualified for the program, and were enrolled. A total of 62 lead inspection and risk assessments and 59 subsequent healthy homes visual assessments were completed through March 2020 (Figure 1). This article includes data from 43 lead inspection and risk assessments and 39 healthy homes visual assessments. Included participant demographics and housing characteristics are shown in Table 1. The majority (76.7%) of included Las Vegas LHCHHP primary participants (n = 43) selfidentified as female, with a similar majority of female head-of-household (74.4%). Most primary participants identified as African American (39.5%) or White (34.9%) while 6.9% identified as another race. Additionally, 51.2% of primary participants identified as Hispanic or Latino. The median participant age was 46 years. Per HUD requirements, all household incomes were within 80% of the federal poverty level by household size, and approximately 28% were considered extremely low-income, Participation From Outreach Through Remediation of Lead-Based Paint and Healthy Homes Hazards in Housing in the Las Vegas Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Program Provide Community Education and Outreach N = 32,580 Prequalification Intake Forms Completed N = 586 Enrolled Participants N = 63 Lead Inspections and Risk Assessments Completed N = 62 Lead-Based Paint Hazards Identified and Healthy Homes Visual Assessments Completed N = 59 Remediation FIGURE 1