NEHA October 2022 Journal of Environmental Health

20 Volume 85 • Number 3 A D VANC EME N T O F T H E SCIENCE between the frequency of restaurant cleanliness keywords and the average review rating of a restaurant, however, was not found to be significant. Table 3 contains the correlation coe cients for these relationships. In addition, the relationship between a restaurant’s average rating and the frequency of keywords can be found in Figure 3, while the relationship between a reviewer’s individual rating and the frequency of keywords is depicted in Figure 4. These results show that restaurant customers are cognizant of FBI and restaurant cleanliness and that they take these factors into consideration when writing a restaurant review. Inclusion of these terms in online reviews were associated with lower customer satisfaction ratings. Moreover, at the restaurant and individual levels, inclusion of words relating to FBI caused a greater negative impact on customer satisfaction. These findings affirm that online reviews about foodborne illness are “extremely detailed” (Nsoesie et al., 2014). While prior studies have not included FBI and restaurant cleanliness issues as significant contributors to online review ratings, the data from our study showed these issues contribute significantly. Relationships Between Restaurant Cleanliness, Foodborne Illness, and Restaurant Category Yelp also adds specific classifications to restaurants, such as Chinese food, pizza place, or trendy. A more widespread practice in the industry is to classify restaurants using the National Restaurant Association’s system, which includes categories for limited and full-service restaurants including fast food (also known as quick-service restaurants), fast casual, moderate, midscale, upscale, and fine dining (Canziani et al., 2016). Thus, we subdivided the restaurants in our data set using these categories; we added a seventh category of food truck due to the concept’s large presence in the data set and its unique characteristics when compared with traditional restaurants (Canziani et al., 2016). The frequency of keywords when the restaurants were divided into these seven categories is shown in Figures 5 and 6. The data showed that food truck reviews had the highest number of keywords per review in both categories. While limited-service restaurants Foodborne Illness and Restaurant Cleanliness Keyword Instances per Individual Online Review Rating Note. N = 231,381 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 4 3 2 1 Keyword Instance Individual Yelp Review Rating Foodborne Illness Keyword Instances per Review Restaurant Cleanliness Keyword Instances per Review Foodborne Illness and Restaurant Cleanliness Keyword Instances by Average Restaurant Online Review Rating Note. N = 954. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Keyword Instance Average Restaurant Yelp Rating Foodborne Illness Keyword Instances per Review Restaurant Cleanliness Keyword Instances per Review FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4

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