NEHA October 2022 Journal of Environmental Health

October 2022 • Journal of Environmental Health 19 ket across a period of 12 years revealed significant usage of these keywords; statistical analysis also indicated that the impact on customer satisfaction was significant. For practical and theoretical relevance, we also explored the most common keywords used, how these keywords were used across restaurants of dierent average meal prices, and the categories of restaurants that were most heavily implicated in these reviews. Exploration of Keyword Frequency and Usage in Yelp Reviews Research objective 1 involved exploring the use of terms in the text mining dictionaries within customer-generated reviews. The results showed that the presence of keywords from both dictionaries in individual customer reviews led to decreased customer satisfaction expressed on a 5-star scale, with 82.6% of restaurants receiving at least one review containing one or more keywords in either dictionary. Specifically, 77.4% of restaurants received at least one review containing one restaurant cleanliness keyword and 60.0% of restaurants received at least one review containing one FBI keyword. The breakdown of keyword frequencies for each dictionary is shown in Table 2. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between health inspection scores and Yelp reviews (Park et al., 2016). Our study investigated customer online reviews related to food safety and restaurant cleanliness in the Houston area. Public health o’- cials could use the correlations between the frequency of keywords and customer satisfaction to incentivize restaurateurs to implement safer food practices, as prior literature confirms the link between customer satisfaction and restaurant success (Jeong & Jang, 2011). Yelp assigns each restaurant on its platform a standardized price score, indicated by a number of dollar signs ($) next to the restaurant’s name. Our data from this study showed that the frequency of FBI keywords decreases as the price of the restaurant increases (Figure 2). Furthermore, our data indicated that customers reported restaurant cleanliness issues with the highest frequency at inexpensive restaurants. As the average meal price of the restaurant increased, guests reported fewer restaurant cleanliness issues until the average meal price reached its maximum category of four dollar signs ($$$$). Future studies could investigate customer perceptions of restaurant cleanliness issues across dierent restaurant scales, such as price. Relationship of Foodborne Illness and Restaurant Cleanliness Issues With Customer Satisfaction Regarding research objective 2, statistical analysis indicated there were statistically significant inverse correlations between the frequency of FBI keywords and customer satisfaction both on the average restaurant and individual review rating levels. Results also demonstrated a statistically significant inverse correlation between the frequency of restaurant cleanliness keywords and the individual review rating. The correlation Foodborne Illness and Restaurant Cleanliness Keyword Instances by Restaurant Price 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 ($) 2 ($$) 3 ($$$) 4 ($$$$) Keyword Instance Restaurant Price Scale Average Foodborne Illness Keyword Instances per Restaurant Average Restaurant Cleanliness Keyword Instances per Restaurant FIGURE 2 Statistical Analysis Report With Average and Individual Review Rating as the Dependent Variable Review Rating Type Statistical Analysis Frequency of Foodborne Illness Keywords (1/10,000) Frequency of Cleanliness Keywords (1/10,000) Average review rating for entire restaurant (N = 954) Pearson’s correlation -.109 * -.024 Significance (2-tailed) .001 .450 Individual review rating (N = 231,381) Pearson’s correlation -.078 * -.071 * * Indicates statistical significance. TABLE 3

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