NEHA November 2022 Journal of Environmental Health

42 Volume 85 • Number 4 A D VANC EME N T O F T H E PRACTICE model can also simulate exposure for 17 per- or polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Inhalation exposure to PFAS in household water is not usually evaluated quantitatively because most PFAS are nonvolatile. Using the SHOWER Model, however, improves assessment by accounting for exposures from the more volatile sulfonamide PFAS. Future Enhancements for the Public Health Assessment Site Tool Several enhancements are under development for PHAST. For the planned Health Eˆect Tool, the PHAST team is developing chemical-specific health eˆects charts that can be generated from site-specific doses and concentrations. Once completed, PHAST will generate a graphic that shows site-specific doses or air concentrations along with a description of the harmful eˆects that might be expected at those doses or concentrations. Another enhancement under development is a food calculator that will describe the number of daily, weekly, or monthly meals needed to exceed the ATSDR minimal risk level or a prescribed cancer risk. PHAST and its a‹liated tools have modernized ATSDR’s complex scientific evaluation processes and brought together many cuttingedge resources into a user-friendly platform. They empower public health professionals to conduct assessments of exposure to hazardous chemicals in a consistent and transparent manner. As a result, they have contributed to high scientific quality and trustworthiness in products and services provided by ATSDR and its partners and better protect communities from harmful exposure. Access to the Public Health Assessment Site Tool PHAST is available to public health professionals who conduct PHAs to evaluate exposure to harmful chemicals at hazardous waste sites or other sites with known contamination following the PHA process (ATSDR, 2022). To request access to PHAST, please email The ATSDR SHOWER Model is a stand-alone application that can be downloaded to your computer. You can request the model by sending an email to Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Liz Bertelsen, Michelle Arbogast, Dr. Rebecca DeVries, and Dr. William Morgan from the Eastern Research Group, Inc., and James Durant from ATSDR. Corresponding Author: Zheng Li, Associate Director of Science, O‹ce of Community Health and Hazard Assessment, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Highway, MS S106-5, Chamblee, GA 30341. Email: References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2022). Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual (PHAGM). https://www. Ulirsch, G.V., & Li, Z. (2022). New webbased Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual: A foundational tool for evaluating exposure and public health impacts in communities. Journal of Environmental Health, 85(2), 38–41. https://www.neha. org/sites/default/files/jeh/JEH9.22-Col umn-Direct-From-ATSDR.pdf Example of an Output Table Generated by the Public Health Assessment Site Tool for Drinking Water Note. The example table shows calculated ingestion doses, hazard quotients, and cancer risks for benzene at 100 ppb in household water. The calculations were generated using PHAST v2.1.1.0 from ATSDR. The noncancer hazard quotients were calculated using the chronic (>1 year) minimal risk level of 0.0005 mg/kg/day and the cancer risks were calculated using the cancer slope factor of 0.055 (mg/kg/day)-1. ATSDR = Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; CTE = central tendency exposure (typical); RME = reasonable maximum exposure (higher). † A shaded cell indicates the hazard quotient is >1, which ATSDR evaluates further. ‡ A shaded cell indicates that the cancer risk exceeds one extra case in a million people similarly exposed, which ATSDR evaluates further. § This cancer risk represents a scenario where children are likely to continue to live in their childhood homes as adults. Exposure Group Birth to <1 year 0.0065 13 † - 1 0.014 29† - 1 1 to <2 years 0.0027 5.4 † - 1 0.0078 16† - 1 2 to <6 years 0.0022 4.3 † - 4 0.0056 11† - 4 6 to <11 years 0.0016 3.2 † - 5 0.0044 8.8† - 5 11 to <16 years 0.0011 2.2 † - 1 0.0035 7.0† - 5 16 to <21 years 0.0011 2.2 † - 0 0.0034 6.8† - 5 Total child - - 1.9E-5‡ 12 - - 7.1E-5‡ 21 Adult 0.0015 3.1† 1.3E-5‡ 12 0.0039 7.7† 9.0E-5‡ 33 Pregnant individual 0.0012 2.4 † - - 0.0035 7.1† - - Breastfeeding individual 0.0023 4.6† - - 0.0049 9.8† - - Birth to <21 years plus 12 years during adulthood § - - - - - - 1.0E-4‡ 33 CTE Dose (mg/kg/ day) CTE Noncancer Hazard Quotient CTE Cancer Risk RME Dose (mg/kg/ day) CTE Exposure Duration (years) RME Noncancer Hazard Quotient RME Cancer Risk RME Exposure Duration (years) FIGURE 3