NEHA November 2022 Journal of Environmental Health

November 2022 • Journal of Environmental Health 25 mains are di cult to determine. VOC sewer gas transport can be estimated using several factors, including liquid/gas mass transfer, vapor di usion, sorption, and biodegradation (Roghani et al., 2021). For CIPP operations, mass transfer likely will govern transport in the sewer near the injection site. Away from that site (once background pressures return), other factors will become more important for transport. These farther distances would be consistent with hazardous waste vapor intrusion observations where VOC transport has been documented hundreds of feet within sewers (Roghani et al., 2018). The transport distance is dependent on the e ectiveness of sewer ventilation and the VOC source strength. If the sewer is e ectively ventilated and/or the VOC source is removed, VOC concentrations decrease, providing a means to reduce the exposure level. Human Exposure, Health E ects, and Styrene Lack of formal incident reporting has resulted in many CIPP emission exposures not being identified and logged (Sendesi et al., 2017). Incident review revealed that CIPP contractors frequently encourage exposed individuals to contact them instead of public health o cials or medical professionals. Contractors provide incident risk information based on safety data sheets that do not list all chemicals that are used, created, and discharged into the air. No explicit CIPP incident response procedures or monitoring guidelines currently exist. CIPP waste releases have been treated as hazardous material releases, but most health and environmental departments lack expertise and/or equipment to respond. Chemicals released are regulated under the Clean Air Act, which was designed to protect public health and public welfare and also regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (U.S. EPA, 2022b). To date, Clean Air Act primacy agencies and U.S. EPA have not formally reviewed CIPP manufacture or the companies as a pollution source (Berlin, 2022). Acute exposure to CIPP-related chemicals can prompt a variety of symptoms, including irritation of skin, eyes, nose, and the respiratory system; breathing di culties; and neurological e ects including headaches, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea, and loss of consciousness. Chronic symptoms associated with these chemical exposures currently are unknown. No studies were found that considered the duration or dose of CIPP-related chemical exposures. For workers, the potential cumulative e ect of multiple VOCs present in combination may be greater than the measured exposure to styrene alone (WDHFS & ATSDR, 2005). The greatest amount of human health information exists for styrene vapor, which Group Roles and Action Plans for Cured-in-Place Pipe-Related Stakeholders Stakeholders Roles Groups identified as having a role in chemical exposure and incident response Public works • Approve construction practices to be used with contract specifications • Oversee construction • Warn persons at risk of chemical exposure if contractor fails to constrain waste Physicians and medical technicians • Human sample collection for exposure assessment • Symptom treatment • Decontamination of patients exposed to toxic substances, through the potential use of ATSDR guidance: 1) Emergency Medical Services: A Planning Guide for the Management of Contaminated Patients and 2) Hospital Emergency Departments: A Planning Guide for Management of Contaminated Patients Emergency responders • Respond to potential chemical exposure incidents • Protect the lives of people in the communities they serve • Administer immediate medical assistance (i.e., oxygen) or transport exposure victims to hospital • Some groups have specialized hazardous materials teams that can be called in • FEMA to provide training grants to support state and local governments • Historically rely on material safety data sheets for immediate site assessments • Be equipped with 4 gas meters and sometimes photoionization detectors (PIDs) • Can ventilate affected buildings Elected officials • Represent constituent concerns to government agencies • Form emergency planning districts to facilitate the preparation and implementation of emergency plans, if needed Groups identified as having additional responsibilities before and after the construction project NIOSH/OSHA • Provide emergency responders, health officials, and workers technical assistance for documenting and minimizing chemical exposures Environmental regulators • Require pollutant documentation and abatement Code officials • Require review and implementation of code provisions necessary for the protection of public health, safety, and property resulting from construction activities and use Industry and contractors • Provide in advance to neighboring residents detailed information and emergency contact information for the health department on possible side effects and safety accidents during manufacturing • Require warning of workers about the hazards and possible incidents arising from manufacturing operations • Provide training and guidance to workers on appropriate PPE Researchers • Identify factors that control and limit pollutant emission, exposure, and toxicological impacts Note. ATSDR = Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; FEMA = Federal Emergency Management Agency; NIOSH = National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; OSHA = Occupational Safety and Health Administration; PPE = personal protective equipment. TABLE 2