NEHA November 2022 Journal of Environmental Health

24 Volume 85 • Number 4 A D VANC EME N T O F T H E PRACTICE Sendesi et al., 2017). More than 15 CIPP resins and 20 initiators have been used. For initiator compounds, more than 19 degradation products can be created during manufacture (Ra et al., 2018). Antioxidants, plasticizers, and solvents present in the resin sometimes are not reported on safety data sheets (Li et al., 2019). Reinforcement is used, such as polyethylene terephthalate fiber for thermally manufactured CIPPs and glass fiber for UVmanufactured CIPPs. Inorganic fillers may be present to reduce the amount of resin and material cost. Direct chemical analysis of styrene resins (i.e., polyester/vinyl ester resin, isophthalic based polyester resin, and vinyl ester resin) has revealed as many as 60 VOCs per resin, but only 1 to 4 VOCs were listed on the corresponding resin safety data sheets (Li et al., 2019; Noh et al., 2022b; Ra et al., 2019; Sendesi et al., 2017). To date, approximately 40 organic compounds have been found discharged into the air because of CIPP manufacture (Matthews et al., 2020; Ra et al., 2019; Sendesi et al., 2017) and many more have been confirmed in the resins, found as residual inside the new CIPPs, and released into water. Air contaminants include HAPs, carcinogens, endocrine disrupting compounds, and other contaminants that can cause acute health e–ects (Supplemental Table 2). For steam-cured CIPP, waste discharged into air can be a complex multiphase mixture of partially cured resin, oligomers, particulates, VOC vapor, and VOC- and SVOC-saturated water vapor (Sendesi et al., 2017). VOC vapor levels have been found to exceed 1,500 ppm, which is 4–5 orders of magnitude higher than the background of <0.1 ppm (Bourbour Ajdari, 2016; LeBouf & Burns, 2019; LeBouf et al., 2021; Matthews et al., 2020; Ra et al., 2018, 2019; Sendesi et al., 2017). For steam CIPP air emissions, the total plume styrene level has been shown to reach 4,300 ppm (Sendesi et al., 2017). CIPP manufacture with hot recirculated water also emits VOCs into the air, but some CIPP industry representatives still refer to these emissions as “steam.” Chemicals are also released into the air during UV CIPP manufacture (LeBouf & Burns, 2019; Li et al., 2019). Pollution from hot water and UV CIPP has been less studied than pollution from steam CIPP. A laboratory investigation estimated thermal CIPP manufacture can discharge 6 to 20 tons of VOC vapor into the air per project (Sendesi et al., 2020). Air sampling data are limited, and investigators often assumed that styrene was the only chemical of concern. Pollutant Fate and Transport in Sewers and Buildings Chemicals can travel from CIPP manufacturing sites through sewers and enter buildings (Figure 1 and Supplemental SI-2). It was reported that styrene was detected 0.8 km downstream in a sewer of a CIPP installation and kilometers away above ground from another manufacturing site (RIVM, 2006). Building plumbing traps are designed to prevent sewer gases from directly venting into indoor air but their presence, design, and functionality is not guaranteed (Supplemental SI-2), allowing sewer gas entry into indoor air spaces (Pennell et al., 2013). As <10 kPa can displace a typical p-trap water seal, nearby CIPP activities can and have displaced water seals, allowing entry of chemicals (Noh et al., 2022a). At present, the prediction of CIPP chemical locations and concentrations within sewer Levels of Environmental Health Literacy Needed for Various Stakeholders Stakeholders Industry Workers Environmental Quality Officials First Responders Public Health Officials Healthcare Professionals People Near Work Sites Elected Officials Create plans to prevent or mitigate the hazard X X X Evaluate strategies to address the hazard X X X X X Analyze the rough probability of CIPPrelated exposures taking place X X X X X Apply information to avoid or mitigate CIPPrelated exposures X X X X X X X X Understand why the exposures exist X X X X X X X X Recognize the potential for CIPP-related exposures X X X X X X X X Note. CIPP = cured-in-place pipe. TABLE 1