NEHA November 2022 Journal of Environmental Health

22 Volume 85 • Number 4 A D VANC EME N T O F T H E PRACTICE Yoorae Noh Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University Jonathan H. Shannahan, PhD School of Health Sciences, Purdue University Anna G. Hoover, PhD Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center Kelly G. Pennell, PhD Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center Mark H. Weir, PhD Division of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University Sustainability Institute, The Ohio State University Andrew J. Whelton, PhD Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Division of Ecological and Environmental Engineering, Purdue University Introduction Water infrastructure is critical to the health of communities, and its condition is connected to environmental justice (Schaider et al., 2019). By 2027, more than $300 billion will be needed to repair U.S. municipal water and sewer pipes (U.S. Government Accountability Oƒce, 2016), which is more than 50% of the entire 2019 construction sector’s gross domestic product. Separate from public utilities, repair is required on more than 500,000 miles of sewer laterals owned by the property owners they serve (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2021). Repair costs have driven demand for innovative solutions that do not require pipe excavation, one of which is the cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) repair process (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [U.S. EPA], 2022a). CIPPs are plastic liners manufactured inside existing damaged sanitary sewer, storm sewer, and drinking water pipes that extend the service life of the host pipes. CIPPs can be 20–90% less costly than other repair methods. Sometimes installers can manufacture the CIPP and move to the next work site within 1–2 hr. These advantages are driving the growing CIPP market, which is estimated to reach $3 billion by 2026. Health oƒcials have responded to CIPPcaused bystander chemical exposure incidents (Figure 1) both outdoors (LeBouf & Burns, 2019; LeBouf et al., 2021; Penders et al., 2012; U.S. Department of Labor, 2018; Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services [WDHFS] & Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry [ATSDR], 2005) and indoors (California Department of Public Health, 2017, 2018; Florida Department of Public Health, 2020; Virginia Department of Health, 2020). Exposures have occurred in neighborhoods, schools, residential buildings, oƒce buildings, and other buildings as well as alongside roadways. Untreated CIPP plastic manufacturing waste is commonly discharged into the environment, a practice that is encouraged by the CIPP industry trade group, CIPP companies, engineering firms, and municipalities overseeing projects (Matthews et al., 2020; NASSCO, 2020). The waste contains a variety of toxicants and physical hazards (e.g., organic vapors, particulates, resin droplets, water saturated with volatile chemicals including hazardous air pollutants [HAPs]). Toxicants can travel to public spaces and buildings through sewer plumbing, cracks in foundations, windows, and doors as well as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning intakes. Bystander exposures resulting in hospitalizations have been reported in Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Netherlands, Poland, States Abs t r ac t Cured-in-place pipes (CIPPs) are plastic liners manufactured inside existing damaged sanitary sewer, storm sewer, and water pipes that extend the service life of host pipes. This process often is conducted in neighborhoods and near roadways. Before, during, and after plastic manufacture, waste materials that include volatile materials are released into the air. Emissions from this manufacturing process can affect outdoor air quality and indoor air quality for buildings connected to the sewer system. We identified key issues and solicited stakeholder feedback to estimate and manage public health risks of CIPP-generated chemical air pollution. A work group representing 13 U.S. agencies and public health associations provided feedback and prioritized public health issues for action. To mitigate potential public and occupational health risks, additional testing and public health educational efforts were recommended. An improved understanding of CIPP chemical exposure pathways, as well as stakeholder needs and interests, is essential. Bystander Chemical Exposures and Injuries Associated With Nearby Plastic Sewer Pipe Manufacture: Public Health Practice and Lessons